Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Developing Students Accuracy and Automation in Subtraction Math Facts Essay

Developing Students Accuracy and Automation in Subtraction Math Facts to 100 - Essay Example to get the remainder zero we have to subtract 3 repeatedly from 15 and it's subsequent remainders. The logic is plain and simple, such fundamental knowledge doesn't make the student stereotyped and he can innovate and conclude the real life problems in a better manner. The less the students minimize their dependency on calculators, the better equipped they find themselves with faster calculations. A quick way to estimate the difference between numbers is to round each number and then subtract the rounded numbers. This probably won't be the exact answer but it may be close enough for some purposes. An estimate can sometimes be improved. If the sum of 645-450 were estimated, we would round 645 to 600 and 450 to 500. The estimate would be 600-500 or 100. One number was rounded down and the other was rounded up. The number 645 was rounded down by 45 and 450 was rounded up by 50. Adding 45+50 gives 95, which rounds to 100. Therefore, a better estimate would be 200. The actual difference is 195. Moreover, the students should make it a habit to calculate their bills, subtract the discounted price and to find out the remaining balance on their own. This will sharpen their skills. Nothing can be more blissful than Self- automation. Source citatio

Monday, October 28, 2019

Bookmaster Essay Example for Free

Bookmaster Essay Background The case bookmaster explains how Drew went to bookmaster to buy a book he wanted to enjoy reading. When Drew arrived at the bookstore and explained to the CRA what book he wanted. The CRA informed Drew that the book was instock and that there were actually two copies of the book on the shelf. However, when Drew and the CRA went to the shelf to get the book there were no copies available. Drew would have to drive to another store that was 15 miles away to get the book. The CRA then suggested to Drew to buy the ebook which was almost $20 cheaper. Drew would have to download the ebook on his computer since the Kindle and iPad’s were too costly for him at the time. Kindle an Ipad both have many restrictions on their work and try to prevent piracy to maximize profits. Case Questions 1. Each player in the above value chain makes money by creating value for the stakeholders. 2. 3. The ebook has many advantages and disadvantages. the first advantage is the development, marketing, and decreasing costs for eReaders. The second advantage is its easy accessible and can be read on any device if it’s an apple because they are linked together. The third advantage is that marketing the product is easier on line than in a book store. The first disadvantage is that the sale price is lower so the profit margin is relatively the same. The second disadvantage is that piracy is more common and the content is easier to duplicate. The third disadvantage is that competition is very high in the digital industry. The hard copy book also has many advantages. The first is that hardcopy books are easier to stay focused on because the web-surfing variable is eliminated. The second advantage is that you can jot down your thoughts while reading. The third advantage is hardcopy books are not subject to the failure of technology. Some disadvantages to hard copy books are as follows; The cost to make the books are high. Books are harder to carry around if you have more than a few with you. The third disadvantage is the costs of books are high. 4. The role of operations in the hardcopy value chain is to print books. The role of operations in ebooks is to produce digital content and to store the content. 5. The other issues that are important on critiquing both of these is the future. Where are books headed in the future? It is important to try and forecast whether ebooks or hardcopy books will be a thing of the past.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Essay on Characters, Tone, and Setting in A Farewell to Arms :: Farewell Arms Essays

Characters, Tone, and Setting of A Farewell to Arms Throughout the world many individuals believe love is the cure for everything. In the novel, A Farewell to Arms, by Ernest Hemingway, is a typical love story between a nurse and a war soldier. Their love affair must survive the obstacles of World War one. Hemingway develops this theme by means of characters, tone, and setting. Hemingway expresses the theme through the use of two main characters, Frederick Henry and Catherine Barkley. Frederick henry is a young American ambulance driver in the Italian army during World War one. At the beginning of the novel Henry never experienced love he believed it was an elaborate game. When he is wounded and sent back to the American hospital where Catherine works their relationship progresses. Frederick slowly falls in love with her and in his love for her, he finds commitment. At the conclusion of the novel, Frederick realizes that he cannot base his life on another person or thing because it will eventually leave him. Catherine Barkley is an English nurse who serves in Italy. On the other hand Catherine is experienced when it comes to love since she has already lost a loved one which was killed earlier in the war. Hemingway also lets us know Catherine already has the knowledge that her life cannot be dependent on another through her husband's death. This all sets the tone for the novel. Hemingway also develops the theme through tone. The tone of this novel is a tragic one. Throughout the novel Hemingway foreshadows Catherine's death. When Catherine is brought into the delivering room, the doctor tells her he has concerns about her narrow hips. Therefore, they had to get a caesarean, and the baby dies. Then Catherine starts to hemorrhage and Henry realizes why he did not want to become involved with love and now he must suffer the consequences. Frederick then states "it was like saying goodbye to a statue," he walks back to his hotel without finding a way to say good-bye. Frederick realizes that Catherine was just a symbol of strength in his life. Evidently, Hemingway conveys this novel as a tragic one. One last ingredient the author expresses to develop the theme is the novel's setting. The story takes place during World War one. However, the plot is always active. The characters were never staying in one place too long.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Pediatric Nursing Essay

A pediatric nurse must offer the proper maintenance care to a child. Depending on the specific pediatrics office or environment that they work, most accurately define the roles that they are to assume. In pediatrics nursing, the nurse is responsible for the developmental screenings. Part of this aspect includes measuring the height, weight, and other preliminary measures that mark a child’s growth and development. Nurses in pediatrics are often responsible for collecting laboratory samples. A pediatric nurse will also perform further routine tests and screenings such as checking a child’s temperature, heart rate, blood pressure levels, and respiratory rates. He or she may be responsible for conducting the more basic eye exams, as well. A pediatric nurse is also in direct contact with the parents, so they are to offer the parents the support that they need. In pediatrics nursing, a pediatric nurse may be instructed to interpret laboratory results. Those nurses that work in acute care pediatrics may also conduct in depth physical assessments of any given child. There are several ways become a pediatric nurse. You can become a LPN, an RN, or obtain your Bachelor’s in Nursing. A Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) takes approximately one year. Your scope of practice varies with the state that you live in. In my state, Indiana LPNs cannot start IVs, but can give medications, with the exception of a few specific medications. While the track to becoming an LPN is the shortest, your opportunities are also limited. For example a lot of hospitals are not hiring LPNs so they are limited to nursing homes. A Registered Nurse (RN) is the next type of nurse that you can become. Typically, this takes approximately two years to achieve. Nurses who go through a RN program receive either a nursing certificate or an associate’s degree in nursing (ADN or ASN). Registered nurses can work in many areas and have a wide range of privileges. RNs are the most flexible when it comes to areas in which you can work. Another option is to complete a four-year program in nursing which gives you a bachelor’s Degree in Nursing in addition to an RN license. More and more facilities prefer nurses with their BSN. To obtain your BSN you can either go to a four-year college or you can obtain your RN and then go to a bridge program and obtain your BSN. After obtaining the option of nursing you desire the next step is becoming a pediatric nurse. One of the easiest ways to become a pediatric nurse is to apply to work in a site that serves pediatric patients and receive your specialized training there where you work. The hospital where I hope to work offers a 3 month intern program for new nursing graduates that include both classrooms and clinical training specifically in pediatrics. Becoming a Certified Pediatric Nurse (CPN) once you have graduated, you can also take an exam to become a Certified Pediatric Nurse. There are also special classes that address Pediatrics. These include Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) through the American Heart Association, the Emergency Nurse Pediatric Course through the Emergency Nurses Association (see: www. ena. org), and Emergency Medical Services for Children.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Evaluation Essay Essay

The National Basketball Association, popularly Known as the NBA, was established in New York City on June 6, 1946, as the Basketball Association of America and the Chicago Bulls became a member of the NBA after their establishment in 1966. Since becoming the NBA, the basketball played during the playoffs has proven to be far more competetive than that played during the regular season of at least 60 games per team. This was proven beyond doubt when the Chicago Bulls defeated the Brooklyn Nets in the 2013 playoffs after trailing by 14 points with only 3 minutes and forteen seconds of regulation time left. This was quite hard to believe and turned out to be an unexpected reality despite the susceptibility of the Chicago Bulls to injury and the absence of their superstar, Derick Rose. With the emergence of the 2008 number 1 draft pick of the NBA, Derick Rose, drafted by the Chicago Bulls, there was hope for an NBA title for the city of Chicago which has not had any hope since the Michael Jordan era. After the horrible 2012/2013 regular season in which the Bulls suffered a great deal of injuries worst than any other NBA team, the Bulls head into the playoffs still short handed. The first impression about this Bulls’ team is their resilience considering their success into the playoffs despite the injury woes. The first round featured the Bulls and the Nets in what is suppose to be a seven game series with the winner being any team with the first four wins. The two teams meet at the Barclays Center in New York for game 4 of the series with the Bulls leading two games to one. The game appeared to be pretty even within the first three quarters untill the nets blowout to a 14 point lead with exactly 3 minutes and 14 seconds of playtime left on the clock. At this point, no one could see the possibilty of a Bulls win considering the absence of a superb playmaker like their all-star point guard, Derick Rose who used to lead them to numerous comeback wins. Notwithstan ding, the bulls backup point guard, Nate Robinson, who is just 5†² 9†³ tall, Weighing 180 lb popularly reffered to as ‘little Nate’ by most basketball journalists and analysts went to work. He can be reffered to at this point as the savior, but who could have imagined that at a crucial point like this, it will be the backup point guard, who is not ony the smallest player on the bulls roster but also one of the least regarded who will bail them out. With the nets leading by 14 at this point, all hope was lost but the Bulls coach, Tom Thibedeau, was still on his toes with the hope to salvage the situation.  Nate took over, first by hitting a three point basket. The lead was down to 11, but the Nets’ coach was pretty relaxed and still had hope for a victory while little Nate thought otherwise. He made 90% of all the points made by the Bulls from this point on. With the Nets loosing the ball at the other end, the bulls converted at the other end. By the time the short clock was at 1:14, the bulls had made and 8:0 run, and the battle was far from done. This was quite unexpected for many reasons. The basketball played during the playoff is way more competitive such that it is rare to see an 8-0 run at a crucial point such as in this situation. In addition to this, the bulls were very short handed compared to a very health Brooklyn team with promissing reserves as well. It all came down to this; â€Å"Who had the passion, who had the drive† as one of the journlists noted. At this point, even though ‘Little Nate ‘ was the main playmaker for the bulls, all the players stepped up their game. Everyone was alert. The rebounding was up, the defending up, the players seemed unstopable at this point. Still, everyone still doubted a bulls win who were still down by 6 points with 1:14 left on the clock. Notwithstanding, the bulls believed in themselves and kept the pace. With the players doing a great job, there was one man who can be reffered to at this point as the fuel, the coach, Tom Thibedeau. He was sensational, and constantly on his toes and he is regarded as someone who believes in winning with no regards to whoever is on the court, whether they are stars, superstars, rookies or average players. This was the mentality he impacted on the bulls despite the absence of their best player. With 1:11 left, the bulls continue to make their run through Nate. Relative to his performance that night, this little guy appeared very tall and not even Brook Lopez, a very big guy of 7 ft 0 and 275 lb on the opposing team could stop him. Lopez put a huge body on ‘little Nate’ whose intelligence overcame the doggy defence. He continued to nock down shots to everyone’s suprise. â€Å"Big things come in small packages† one of the journalists said in reference to his astounding performance. Both teams were level at the end of the fourth quarter and headed for overtime. This was a turn ing point for both teams. While the nets played well, the bulls were clearly the team with the bigger drive to win. Nothing could be seen to limit the bulls not even age in the case of veteran center Nazr Mohammad, the oldest guy on the bulls roster who came off the bench and hit a huge basket with a great offensive rebound that  solidified the bull’s win in the third overtime. In conclusion, the bulls win over the nets in game 4 of the 2013 NBA playoffs was a thriller and no body could have seen it coming. It is worth noting that, believe and hardwork was the driving force of such an unexpected comeback.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Workplace Violence Essays - Workplace Bullying, Workplace

Workplace Violence Essays - Workplace Bullying, Workplace Workplace Violence Workplace Violence Statistics Workplace and Violence two words that until recently were never associated with one another. Yet when these words come together they strike terror in the lives of the people that are affected by them. Workplace, when we think of this word we think of a safe environment where we go to make to our lives better, a place to make careers for ourselves. The workplace is supposed to provide security for our families and to help to one day achieve the goal of financial freedom. Violence, when we hear this word images pop up in our head like the Jerry Springer Show, the Oklahoma City Bombing, or the latest act of violence to shock our nation the massacre of the high school in Colorado. These images are stuck in our minds forever; the shear horror of these acts puts us back into perspective of reality. Violence is a very real almost unpredictable event that can strike anywhere at anytime. It is the driving force that plagues our workplace as we speak. Oct. 15KIMBERLY, Wis.In November 1992, Thomas Monfils was killed by several co-workers and his mutilated body was found in a pulp vat with a 40-pound weight tied to his neck at the James River Corp. mill in Green Bay (Mulholland). Workplace violence is turning into a number one priority for todays businesses. On an average working day, three people will be murdered on the job in the U.S. One million workers are assaulted and more than 1,000 are murdered every year, according to the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Homicide is the second highest cause of death on the job, after motor vehicle accidents. That translates into three cases for every 10,000 workers, confirms the U.S. Department of Labor. In 1992, 111,000 incidents of work-place violence cost employers and others an estimated $6.2 -2- million (ODonovan). The statistics are shocking for the amount of workplace violence that is out there everyday in our workforce. Even more shocking then these statistics is the fact that more than half of these cases go unreported. That means an estimated two million workers are assaulted every year and more than 2,000 people are murdered. Workplace Violence Behavior and Characteristics If the statistics got the heart pumping then the characteristics will produce a heart attack. Many people in the workforce think it will never happen to them. I dont need to worry about workplace violence because it will never happen to me. The fact of the matter is that the people that commit these acts are more common then some people think. Author Joseph Kinney contends that perpetrators of work-place violence do not fit a standard profile. He advises to focus behavior, not characteristics. However based on previous acts of violence, some experts have identified warning symptoms. These include: middle-aged male, loner, usually quiet, with defiant outbursts, emotionally unstable; erratic behavior, pathological blamer or complainer, always frustrated strained work relationships, reduced productivity, ignores tardiness or absences, undergoes a dramatic personality swing, changes in health of hygiene, feels victimized, makes threats, fascination with weapons, exhibits paranoia, seems depressed, is a Hate Group member, dependence on alcohol or drugs, is involved in a troubled, work-related romantic situation. -3- The violence-prone may view these situations as events to justify a violent response: performance counseling sessions, disciplinary actions, termination, passed over for a promotion, criticism from coworkers, failed or spurned romance, personal crisis, e.g., divorce(ODonovan). Its a scary thought to think that the person you go on break with, the person you carpool with is capable of this violence at any moment. One minute they are your next door neighbor the next minute they are on Americas Most Wanted for the massacre of several people at their place of work. One steamy August day in 1986, postal employee Patrick Sheryl, 44, walked into the U.S. Post Office in Edmund, Okla. Inside his mail pouch were three guns and 100 rounds of ammunition. Sheryl killed 17 coworkers and himself in 10 minutes(ODonovan). Workplace Violence Prevention Through all the darkness and evil that workplace violence brings to the table there is light at the end of the tunnel. Companies now have the ammunition they need to help in the fight against workplace violence.

Monday, October 21, 2019

10 Soft Insults in German and What They Mean

10 Soft Insults in German and What They Mean When you come to Germany and walk through the streets you might listen to some slang or curse words in the German language. They are very often used to make fun of certain aspects of someone’s behavior. Here are some of the more interesting ones that you might hear when you are an attentive listener. Warmduscher This is someone who likes to take hot showers.  In Germany, it is an often discussed myth that showering with ice-cold water is considered as masculine.  Well, somehow they had to see the bright side of a life without electricity and put it like that.  Today we just joke and say Warmduscher to people who like it comfortable or might be a little cowardly. Sitzpinkler A man who is peeing sitting on the toilet instead of standing. Real men stand when they mark their territory - and hopefully clean it afterward. Streber This is an interesting one because it describes a striver or nerd.  And as nerd† is cooler than â€Å"Streber†, we started to use â€Å"nerd† too in German when we talk about Streber. If someone is very eager or is behaving like Hermione Granger- you can call him a Streber. Angeber The â€Å"Angeber† is a poser, a show-off.  This is much stronger and you will hear it for sure when you will see an expensive car at a traffic light and the owner is playing with the pedal to impress the people in the street.   Teletubbyzurà ¼ckwinker Remember the Teletubbies? Well, this word describes someone who would wave back to the Teletubbies and this is, unless you are two years old, considered to be really wimpy. Cool grown-ups don’t do this unless they lost a bet. So if you want to use this, do not apply it to yourself and make sure the person you consider as a Teletubbyzurà ¼ckwinkler is far away so he or she would not hear you. Tee-Trinker In Germany, the country of beer drinking, drinking tea while others have a beer is uncool- sorry to the British and other tea drinkers. Of course, you are not supposed to get drunk and become an alcoholic, neither should you feel forced to have a beer- it is just this feeling of having a real â€Å"Feierabend Bier† (after-work beer) that makes drinking tea look like a weird idea for a real German. Schattenparker A word which describes someone who parks his car in the shadow because he can not stand the heat. A real man is supposed to stand any heat. Well, if you believe that- have fun during German summer in the city. Weichei Literally, a soft egg. This is simply a wimp, a coward.  This could be said in any imaginable situation. Verzà ¶gerungsgenießer This word comes from the German-dubbed movie Vanilla Sky. It describes persons who like to enjoy not everything at once but bit by bit. â€Å"Verzà ¶gerung†- means delay. Frauenversteher This is most likely a word a woman wouldnt use as an insult. Most women would probably love to be understood by a man. But men have turned this quality into a non-virtue and a lack of masculinity. Enjoy this little counterexample of a women understander by one of the better-known comedians from some time ago. If those insults above are not manly enough for you, try this Beleidigungsgenerator, which wont beat around the bush. Hopefully, this list gives you a little insight into the mindset of some Germans, which is still surprisingly macho.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

ESL Dialogue to Make an Appointment With the Dentist

ESL Dialogue to Make an Appointment With the Dentist In teaching English and a Second Language (ESL) or English as an Alternative Language (EAL)  students how to properly communicate in English, oftentimes specific examples will help them to understand the dynamics of English grammar and usage at play in real life circumstances, though it is important to also emphasize the technical rules associated with each grammatical situation. One such example of a situation an ESL or an EAL  student may encounter outside of school is scheduling an appointment at the dentist- or doctor, but its best to keep these types of exercises simple and one-dimensional to present the clearest message to students. In this scenario, the teacher should begin by playing the role of the dentist office assistant, mining answering a phone that the student, the patient, should voice.   ESL Dialogue for Practicing Scheduling Medical Appoints Dentist Office Assistant: Good morning, Beautiful Smile Dentistry, this is Jamie. How may I help you today? Patient: Good morning, Id like to schedule a check-up. D:  Id be happy to do that for you. Have you been to Beautiful Smile before? P: Yes, I have. My last check-up was six months ago. D: Great. Can I get your name, please? P:  Yes, of course, sorry. My name is [students name]. D: Thank you, [students name]. Which dentist did you see on your last check-up. P:  Im not sure, really. D: Thats OK. Let me check your chart... Oh, Dr. Lee. P: Yes, thats right. D: OK... Dr. Lee has time next Friday in the morning. P: Hmmm... thats not good. Ive got work. How about the week after that? D: Yes, Dr. Lee has sometimes open. Would you like to suggest a time? P: Does he have anything open in the afternoon? D: Yes, we could fit you in on Thursday, January 14th at 2.30 in the afternoon. P: Great. Thatll work. D: OK, thank you for calling Mr. Appleman, well see you next week. P:  Thank you, bye-bye. Key Phrases for Making Appointments to Emphasize The key takeaways from this exercise are the phrases that one might encounter at a doctor or dentists office that may be confusing to new English learners like which dentist did you see? or we can fit you in, which makes no sense in the literal interpretation of the phrase. The most important phrase for an ESL student to learn here, though, is Id like to schedule or make an appointment, but its also important to be able to understand the response, like if the office assistant had said I wish I could help as a rejection- an ESL student may not understand this means there is nothing that assistant can do to match that persons schedule. The phrase check-up and have you been to Dr. Xs before are both unique to ESL students because they present a colloquialism commonly used to describe situations specific to visiting a doctor or dentist.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Culture and Accounting Thesis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 10750 words

Culture and Accounting - Thesis Example This research aims to evaluate and present culture as one of the most significant elements in understanding the framework of the society, for the culture modifies the various systems of the society and it influences the customs, morals and group behavior in and across these systems. The most generally accepted cultural framework in accounting study is the Hofstede’s cultural standards. The use of Hofstede-Gray framework is to evaluate the impact of culture on the implementation and form of accounting, as it shows the influence of culture in China’s accounting system through a thorough examination. Hofstede put forwards common values all the way through the interaction of four parts. These are ecological factor, institutional effects, outside influence and community norms. Hofstede-Gray framework is used to explain and forecast worldwide dissimilarities in accounting systems and to recognize the patterns of accounting growth globally. Accounting practices and systems of a country can influence and strengthen community values. Accounting practices of a country, being primarily a human activity, are affected by the decisions and interpretations in the application of accounting principles and values. The accounting practices of a country are also affected by the environmental features, mainly culture. So the culture, values and customs held by the members of an accounting scheme, have a pervasive effect on the accounting practices of the country. The practicing of accounting system by various cultural groups would result in different decisions and interpretations of accounting system ideas and its relationships. ... of the most significant elements in understanding the framework of the society, for the culture modifies the various systems of the society and it influences the customs, morals and group behavior in and across these systems. The most generally accepted cultural framework in accounting study is the Hofstede’s cultural standards. The use of Hofstede-Gray framework is to evaluate the impact of culture on the implementation and form of accounting, as it shows the influence of culture in China’s accounting system through a thorough examination. Hofstede put forwards common values all the way through the interaction of four parts. These are ecological factor, institutional effects, outside influence and community norms. Hofstede-Gray framework is used to explain and forecast worldwide dissimilarities in accounting systems and to recognize the patterns of accounting growth globally. Accounting practices and systems of a country can influence and strengthen community values. A ccounting practices of a country, being primarily a human activity, are affected by the decisions and interpretations in the application of accounting principles and values. The accounting practices of a country are also affected by the environmental features, mainly culture. So the culture, values and customs held by the members of an accounting scheme, have a pervasive effect on the accounting practices of the country. The practicing of accounting system by various cultural groups would result in different decisions and interpretations of accounting system ideas and its relationships. The cultural relativism on the accounting practices by different systems in a country can affect the reliable decisions and interpretations in the application of auditing and accounting standards. The accountants

Friday, October 18, 2019

Health and medecine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Health and medecine - Essay Example cial model of health is based on the principle that the two determinants must be involved while considering the other factors that influence the health of a person such as biological as well as medical aspects, for enhanced health and wellbeing to be accomplished. The social model of health allows flexibility in the society to develop its own principles regarding what the meaning of health is. Through such an approach, the people determine what is good and bad for their health based on the societal perspective (Nettleton, 2006). Several factors such as the societal engagements, economic wellbeing, culture and other activities in which an individual interacts with other people are considered to have a significant impact on health in the social model. The model provides a theoretical framework that offers guidelines for people to understand ways in which good health can be maintained in the society by avoiding prejudice and stigma in the society, as well as maintaining equality and justice for all (Dalton et al. 2007). There are various differences between the social model and the biomedical model that has many limitations. The model points at the interaction societal, financial and individual aspects as the combination that determines the health of a person. These are viewed as the factors that should be considered for improved health to be accomplished. A change in the people’s way of life is the most significant way to deal with the illness. On the other hand, the medical model is focused on the factors that cause a deviation from the normal body functions, making an individual unable to perform the normal day o day activities (Jones & Creedy, 2009). Such factors include biological abnormalities such as genetic make up or physiological disorders. The medical model highlights diagnosis of disease and the use of medication as the appropriate way of dealing with illness. The medical model views the disease causing organism as something that can be removed from

Cover Letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 4

Cover Letter - Essay Example I am also hardworking and flexible, so I can meet the changing needs and demands of my job. My value for a systematic and collaborative environment is an added advantage for your organization to realize its goals in a timely and effective manner. I understand that achieving performance improvement and government expenditure growth is a difficult task for the government. However, for whatever the government can accomplish, it should to be accountable to the taxpayers. In other words, the taxpayers should be aware of how their money is used. One of the most successful methods of achieving accountability is to publish and release data annually and semi-annually in order to provide the public with information on how public funds are spent and how well the government is performing in terms of service delivery to the public. Providing information about public service and performance ensures that the government becomes accountable and improves its efficiency (Erkkilä, 2012). Data of expenditure should be published to enable the public to track the money paid to civil servants, money spent on contracts, and other types of government expenditure. Releasing public data should be done in public and through the print media so that a ll citizens can access them. The local government can become more open, transparent and accountable to its constituents by providing open data, disclosing sufficient financial information on annual financial statements, and engaging the public in decision making. Publishing data on financial expenditure enables the public to assess government performance; hence holding the government accountable for its service delivery and performance. This openness builds public trust on the government. The government should also discuss various issues with the public concerning public service and how the government is using public funds to meet its expenditure. Financial information

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Second Language Acquisition Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Second Language Acquisition - Essay Example This means that linguistic studies are extremely important as they investigate the matters are able to contribute to a better understanding of the human civilization. This paper will examine the differences between two notions: communicative competence on the one hand and linguistic competence on the other. Since the key to perceiving the differences between the above mentioned notions partially lies in the process of language acquisition, the paper will utilize three perspectives that were developed with regard to Second Language Acquisition, namely linguistic, psychological and social one in other to make the analysis objective as well as detailed. Each of the above mentioned perspectives will be analyzed in great detail and various frameworks within it will be used, such as Transformational-Generative Grammar and Universal Grammar, Functionalism and Neurolinguistics, Information Processing and Connectionism, individual differences of learners will also be utilized, together with m icrosocial and macrosial foci of the social perspective. To begin with, it would be particularly important to provide definitions of each of the concept so that the differences between then might become visible based on some fundamental aspect. Thus, it is suggested that communicative competence might be defined as â€Å"what a speaker needs to know to communicate appropriately within a particular language community† (Saville-Troike 2006, p. 100). As one can easily see, there are several key words in this definition. First of all, it includes a certain amount of skills and knowledge that is essential for acquiring communicative competence. Secondly, there is a word that defines the essential element of this notion – â€Å"appropriately†. In other words, a person might possess the above mentioned skills and knowledge, but their amount may not be sufficient in order to contribute to

Online games Vs Violence Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Online games Vs Violence - Essay Example Hollingdale & Greitemeyer found that the Chinese adolescents who prefer to play violent games against human opponents online tended to more aggressive and a greater tolerance for anger. This study was carried among 312 Chinese teens who play online video games. In most cases, it is noted that when video game consumers play against human opponents, the levels of gaming experience increases. Thus, the gaming effects tend to increase the gamers emotions and behaviors. Children who grow up playing violent games tend to develop thinking patterns that influence their behaviour. Many people become aggressive when the gaming controls become difficult. This is a reaction caused by the frustrations facing the gamer. Mothers in Hongkong share a different perspective concerning online games. To them, video games have created a modern form to foster child development (Yung). Kenix Chong Wei-peng believes that online games help her daughter burn up excess before retiring to bed (Yung). According to Chong, her daughter has the opportunity to experience different situations through the online games. Her daughter would be ready, and know what to expect when she has the real chance to face the same situations. Apart from the games being part of entertainment, the experts tend to make them educational too. Ann Chow, head of marketing consumer channels in Microsoft Hongkong, believes that the games would encourage kids to develop a positive attitude towards learning (Yung). Players could access the natural world and have a clear understanding of nature, and be conversant with the different languages and environment. In the gaming consoles, the player becomes the character chosen and assumes the skills of that character. As the levels increase, the games become tougher requiring the gamer to utilise and learn more tactics. Each challenge reinforces the player with new information, thus fostering learning (Yung). Most parents argue that

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Second Language Acquisition Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Second Language Acquisition - Essay Example This means that linguistic studies are extremely important as they investigate the matters are able to contribute to a better understanding of the human civilization. This paper will examine the differences between two notions: communicative competence on the one hand and linguistic competence on the other. Since the key to perceiving the differences between the above mentioned notions partially lies in the process of language acquisition, the paper will utilize three perspectives that were developed with regard to Second Language Acquisition, namely linguistic, psychological and social one in other to make the analysis objective as well as detailed. Each of the above mentioned perspectives will be analyzed in great detail and various frameworks within it will be used, such as Transformational-Generative Grammar and Universal Grammar, Functionalism and Neurolinguistics, Information Processing and Connectionism, individual differences of learners will also be utilized, together with m icrosocial and macrosial foci of the social perspective. To begin with, it would be particularly important to provide definitions of each of the concept so that the differences between then might become visible based on some fundamental aspect. Thus, it is suggested that communicative competence might be defined as â€Å"what a speaker needs to know to communicate appropriately within a particular language community† (Saville-Troike 2006, p. 100). As one can easily see, there are several key words in this definition. First of all, it includes a certain amount of skills and knowledge that is essential for acquiring communicative competence. Secondly, there is a word that defines the essential element of this notion – â€Å"appropriately†. In other words, a person might possess the above mentioned skills and knowledge, but their amount may not be sufficient in order to contribute to

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

MIH514 - Cross-Cultural Perspectives Module 3 - Case Essay - 1

MIH514 - Cross-Cultural Perspectives Module 3 - Case - Essay Example the arrests made by the law enforcers and should one look at the actual picture, arrests are not indicators that the people arrested are the actual offenders (The Sentencing Project 2008). Moreover, based on the study, African Americans and Latinos are most likely incarcerated and in many instances receive longer sentence compared with their white counterparts. Statistics even show that African-Americans are often stopped and searched for contraband compared to their white counterparts. These are clear manifestations of racial disparity and clearly are not helping the society at large to deal with the real crime problems. Decision making bodies in the criminal justice system should make it a point that there should be no racial prejudice when dealing with criminal offenders, but instead the bail system results in higher rates of minorities being jailed before trial compared with whites in the same scenario. Minorities are also less likely to receive fair trial because of their â€Å"reduced access to defense counsel and community resources and treatment options† (The Sentencing Project 2008). Racial disparities can be seen in the following examples: The widely discussed phenomenon â€Å"driving while black†. Study reveals that whites are less likely to be stopped and searched for contraband by police while the minorities are often being stopped and questioned (The Sentencing Project 2008). While racial disparity is an issue in the criminal justice system, mental health services in the system is equally an important matter. The Council of State Governments Justice Center in a report says that 16.9% of adults in a sample of local jails are suffering from serious mental illness. The record shows that 14% of serious mental illnesses are found in men and 31% are found in women. According still to this report, if these rates were applied to 13 million jail admissions reported only in 2007, this would mean that every year there are 2 million bookings of a person who

Monday, October 14, 2019

Troubleshooting Common Diesel Engine Problems Essay Example for Free

Troubleshooting Common Diesel Engine Problems Essay Engine wont start Is the fuel fresh? If untreated fuel is more than a month old, this fuel will start to break down and engine stalling (in addition to fuel system component gumming) can result. Thats why its important to either drain the gas from your outdoor power equipment before it sits idle during the winter, or add a fuel preservative/stabilizer to the fuel. To prevent the fuel from going stale purchase a replacement Fresh Start Fuel Cartridge for your Fresh Start Fuel Cap, OR purchase our Advanced Fuel Treatment and mix the prescribed amount with your gasoline. Even better, keep a gas can solely for your outdoor power equipment filled with gasoline treated with our Advanced Fuel Treatment. That way, you will always have a supply of fresh, treated fuel used specifically for your outdoor power equipment. If youve got stale gas in your equipment, drain the gas from the fuel tank completely and dispose of it properly, following your local municipalities regulations. NOTE: In most cases, this older fuel can be added to your cars fuel tank with no harmful effects. Sometimes removing the old fuel and replacing with fresh, treated fuel may just solve the problem. If not, drain the old fuel and spray the inside of the fuel tank and carburetor with some carburetor cleaner. Finally, remove any sediment from the fuel tank and add fresh, treated gas. Another thing to consider is that certain equipment manufacturers place a plastic packing plug between the gas cap and gas tank. In order for there to be proper venting, ensure that this plug is removed. If stale fuel is not at fault, next look at the ignition system. Did the engine suddenly stop after striking an object? If so, you likely sheared the flywheel key, which upsets the engines ignition (spark) timing. Engine Runs Poorly Is the oil level low? When you pour fresh oil into the crankcase, its a golden or amber color. Gradually, the heat, dirt particles and agitated air in the crankcase cause the oil to darken. Dark oil is not only dirty; it has also lost much of its ability to coat and protect engine components. Manufacturers recommend  changing the oil in your small engine after every 25 hours of operation. For a new engine, youll also need to change the oil after the first five hours of operation. New engines require this extra step to flush out small particles that accumulate naturally during the break-in period. Hours of use are just one factor in determining how often the oil should be changed; the amount of wear and tear is equally important. Just like the oil in a vehicle operated in extremely dirty or dusty conditions or at high speeds, the oil in a lawn mower or other small engine breaks down faster under tough conditions, such as wet grass, heavy dust, high temperatures and rough or hilly terrain. Avoid overfilling your crankcase. Too much oil can cause the same type of engine damage as not having enough. Air bubbles form in the oil, reducing overall lubrication. The resulting friction and metal-to-metal contact can cause premature part failure. Excess oil can also burn in the cylinder, producing smoke and leaving carbon deposits. Engine Wont Start A no-start condition is one of the most frequently encountered engine problems. If there is a clicking noise but the engine does not crank it generally indicates a battery issue. An engine that cranks but will not start is indicative of a fuel or ignition problem. Common reasons an engine wont start: Low or discharged battery Corroded or loose battery cables Starter motor relay failure Ignition switch failure Defective fuel pump Clogged fuel filter Service Engine Soon Light The Service Engine Soon light is designed to illuminate whenever a fault is detected in any of the sensors attached to the emission, engine, or powertrain controls. The purpose of the service engine soon light is to alert the driver to a potentially serious fault that requires repair. Blue exhaust smoke along with the service engine soon light may indicate a fuel  system fault caused by an engine oil leak. An ASE certified mechanic can retrieve the trouble codes from within the onboard electronic control module and determine the specific cause. Frequent service engine soon light causes: Loose or missing gas cap Spark plugs or wires that are worn out or damaged Electronic control module failure Defective distributor or coil packs Emissions control fault such as the oxygen sensor Fuel quality issue Overheating Overheating is most generally caused by a low coolant level. A quick check of the coolant overflow reservoir will indicate if coolant is leaking. Most cars are equipped with temperature gauges or warning lights that will alert the driver to an overheating issue. Frequent overheating can cause serious and expensive engine damage. Proper maintenance of the cooling system is vital in order to maintain the quality of the coolant and to make certain the cooling system is in good operating condition. Additionally, a cracked head or blown head gasket can also cause overheating, coolant loss and white exhaust smoke, which may indicate the need for engine repair. Common reasons for overheating: Faulty thermostat Dirty or low coolant level Non-functioning cooling fan Kinked or broken radiator hose Internal or external coolant leak Defective radiator cap Dirty air filter The Most Common Small Engine Problems Many owners of small engine vehicles such as lawnmowers, golf carts, motorcycles and snowmobiles make the costly mistake of replacing their engines or entire vehicles simply because they believe the engine is beyond  repair. That is rarely the case, and what many small engine owners dont realize is that replacement kits are easy to use, cost effective, and can get your old mower or motorcycle running like new again. The first thing to do when considering a small engine replacement kit is to identify what is wrong with your current engine. Problems fall into two basic categories; failure to start and problems running after the engine has started. Just because your engine wont start doesnt mean it is dead. There are a number of reasons an engine might not start. There may be fuel line problems. Make sure you check to see that the fuel tank is full, that the fuel is fresh, and that the shut-off valve is closed. The fuel line or inlet screen could also be blocked or the fuel tank cap c ould be clogged. These are basic fuel line problems that can easily be remedied with replacement and repair kits. Carburetor problems are another reason an engine might not start. The carburetor could be blocked or the engine could be flooded. There might be problems with the spark plug or the choke on the fuel bowl could be set too high. These are also relatively easy problems to fix with the appropriate instructions and equipment. Another obvious cause for a dead engine is an ignition problem. A number of things could be wrong with the spark plug; its contacts could be dirty, the plug gap could be set incorrectly, the lead could be faulty, or the kill switch could be shorted. These all require basic replacement or repair and are a snap with a proper kit. If you have a compression problem in your small engine you would want to check the valves, pistons, cylinder, or connecting rods. These could be dirty, stripped, or otherwise damaged, and would prevent the engine from starting properly or at all. Many small engines will start correctly but have problems running properly. These can pose more danger to your vehicle than an engine that simply wont start. If left to themselves, simple problems such as overheating and emitting smoke can eventually ruin an engine and require a full-on replacement. Overheating engines can be dangerous for a vehicle as well as its operator. Lack of oil is one of the most common reasons for overheating, as is a dirty engine. Beyond that, there may be shrouds or cooling fans missing within the engine or the gasket could be leaking. The fuel mixture might be too lean, another carburetor problem. Simply cleaning or replacing the fuel tank vent and fuel tank screen can also help reduce the chance of your engine overheating. Fixing overheating problems yourself  with replacement or repair kits is much less expensive than taking the engine in for repairs or simply buying a new engine. If your small engine is emitting smoke you might think you need to replace the engine or vehicle. Not likely. If the engine is emitting blue or white smoke then it is probably burning oil. If it is emitting black smoke it is most likely a problem with a carburetor. If it is neither the carburetor nor an oil leak, then it might be the air filter. A plugged or dirty air filter can cause an engine to smoke. A knocking engine is a loud and obvious indicator that something is wrong with your small engine. If your engine experiences knocking it may indicate an excess of carbon in the combustion chamber, which would require you to clean carbon from the piston and head. The flywheel might also be loose, and should be replaced as needed. Another reason for engine knocks is a faulty spark plug lead, easily tested, repaired and replaced with the appropriate replacement kit. Speaking of spark plugs, a small engine might run poorly if the spark plug repeatedly misses under load. This could be caused by any number of things, including a faulty spark plug, faulty breaker points, an incorrectly set carburetor, or a weak valve spring. All these problems can be repaired at home with a specific repair kit. It may be tempting to simply buy a new small engine vehicle or tool when the engine starts to give you problems, but it is hardly cost-effective and doesnt guarantee you wont run into the same problems a few months down the road. Small engine replacement and repair kits are affordable, easy to use, come with the most advanced technology, and most are back by a warrantee. And with todays economy the way it is, buying a new vehicle when your engine experiences problems is silly. Fix the problem yourself with a detailed replacement kit. It just makes sense. Engine Problems Bad fuel mix A bad fuel mix can occur in several ways: †¢You are out of gas, so the engine is getting air but no fuel. †¢The air intake might be clogged, so there is fuel but not enough air. †¢The fuel system might be supplying too much or too little fuel to the mix, meaning  that combustion does not occur properly. †¢There might be an impurity in the fuel (like water in your gas tank) that makes the fuel not burn. Lack of compression If the charge of air and fuel cannot be compressed properly, the combustion process will not work like it should. Lack of compression might occur for these reasons: †¢Your piston rings are worn (allowing air/fuel to leak past the piston during compression). †¢The intake or exhaust valves are not sealing properly, again allowing a leak during compression. †¢There is a hole in the cylinder. The most common hole in a cylinder occurs where the top of the cylinder (holding the valves and spark plug and also known as the cylinder head) attaches to the cylinder itself. Generally, the cylinder and the cylinder head bolt together with a thin gasket pressed between them to ensure a good seal. If the gasket breaks down, small holes develop between the cylinder and the cylinder head, and these holes cause leaks. Lack of spark The spark might be nonexistent or weak for a number of reasons: †¢If your spark plug or the wire leading to it is worn out, the spark will be weak. †¢If the wire is cut or missing, or if the system that sends a spark down the wire is not working properly, there will be no spark. †¢If the spark occurs either too early or too late in the cycle (i.e. if the ignition timing is off), the fuel will not ignite at the right time, and this can cause all sorts of problems. Many other things can go wrong. For example: †¢If the battery is dead, you cannot turn over the engine to start it. †¢If the bearings that allow the crankshaft to turn freely are worn out, the crankshaft cannot turn so the engine cannot run. †¢If the valves do not open and close at the right time or at all, air cannot get in and exhaust cannot get out, so the engine cannot run. †¢If someone sticks a potato up your tailpipe, exhaust cannot exit the cylinder so the engine will not run. †¢If you run out of oil, the piston cannot move up and down freely in the cylinder, and the engine will seize. Small Engine Problems And Simple Solutions Failure to Start There are a number of reasons a small engine might not start properly: Fuel line problems: Check to see that the fuel tank is full, that the fuel is fresh, and that the shut-off valve is closed. The fuel line or inlet screen could also be blocked or the fuel tank cap could be clogged. Carburetor problems: The carburetor could be blocked or the engine could be flooded. There might be problems with the spark plug. Check the choke on the fuel bowl as well it could be set too high. Ignition problems: The spark plug contacts could be dirty, the plug gap could be set incorrectly, the lead could be faulty, or the kill switch could be shorted. These all require basic replacement or repair and are a snap with a proper kit. Compression problems: Check the valves, pistons, cylinder, or connecting rods if you suspect a compression problem. These could be dirty, stripped, or otherwise damaged, and would prevent the engine from starting properly or at all. Problems Running Problems running properly can pose more danger to your vehicle than an engine that simply wont start. If left unfixed, constant overheating or smoke emission can eventually ruin an engine and require a full-on replacement. Overheating engines: Lack of oil is one of the most common reasons for overheating. So is a dirty engine. Beyond that, there may be shrouds or cooling fans missing within the engine or the gasket could be leaking. The fuel mixture might be too lean, another carburetor problem. Cleaning or replacing the fuel tank vent and fuel tank screen can help reduce the chance of your engine overheating as well. These are all fixes that you can do yourself or with some simple repair kit that will cost far less than a new  engine. Smoking: If the engine is emitting blue or white smoke then it is likely burning oil. If it is emitting black smoke it is a problem with the carburetor most likely. If it is neither the carburetor nor an oil leak, then it might be a clogged or dirty air filter. Knocking engine: If your engine experiences knocking it may indicate an excess of carbon in the combustion chamber, which would require you to clean carbon from the piston and head. The flywheel might also be loose. A faulty spark plug lead could cause engine knocking. This can be easily repaired or replaced. Spark Plug Misses: This could be caused by any number of things, including a faulty spark plug, faulty breaker points, an incorrectly set carburetor, or a weak valve spring.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Introduction To Big Bus Tour Tourism Essay

Introduction To Big Bus Tour Tourism Essay Big Bus Tours is the largest operator of open-top sightseeing tours in the World, providing sightseeing tours in thirteen cities across three continents. Big Bus Tours was formed by the merger of two established sightseeing tour businesses. The Big Bus Company Ltd based in London, and Les Cars Rouge based in Paris. The two businesses, each with over 20 years of successful tour experience, decided to combine their expertise, creating Big Bus Tours in May 2011. Big Bus Tours sightseeing formula has been designed to provide a flexible approach to city discovery. Each open-top bus tour provides a hop-on, hop-off facility at a variety of interesting locations and, wherever possible, Big Bus Tours looks to enhance the visitor sightseeing experience by providing complementary experiences. Big Bus Tours is currently planning further expansion in the US, Europe and Far East, and welcomes all enquiries about possible franchise or partnership opportunities. Source: http://www.bigbustours.com/eng/international/custompage.aspx?id=about_us INTRODUCTION TO THE ORIGINAL TOURS The Original London Transport Sightseeing Tour was the first sightseeing tour of its kind in London, formally introduced by London Transport as Service J on 11th June 1951, when thousands of visitors descended on the capital for the Festival of Britain. It was described at the time as a non-stop circular tour of London operating with double-decker buses from Buckingham Palace Road, South Kensington Station and Bloomsbury Place. The tour was promoted with the slogan around the town for half a crown. As part of the tour, visitors were given a free London Transport Guide Book with the aid of which they had to identify the major sights of London for themselves. By the early seventies the service had expanded to offer conducted coach tours in the City, Windsor Hampton Court, all live guided by the renowned Blue Badge Guides. Back in 1971 the fares for an Around London Sightseeing Tour were 50p for adults and 30p for children, whilst the conducted coach tours in the City cost  £1.40 and  £1.10 respectively. The first live guides were introduced on the Around London Tours in 1984, with taped commentaries in French and German following the next year. In 1990 the service was further improved with digitally recorded commentaries, in up to eight languages. 1991 saw the launch of the most popular hop-on, hop-off service allowing passengers the freedom to get off and explore the sights they passed. Over the years there were several name changes from the initial uncharismatic Service J until 1992 when the name The Original London Sightseeing Tour was finally adopted. In the same year the company was sold to the Pullmans Group Limited and traded as London Coaches Ltd. In December 1997, The Original London Sightseeing Tour Ltd was taken over by Arriva, one of the largest transport service organisations in Europe. In addition to the provision of bus and train services, Arriva plc also operates a Bus and Coach dealership; and holds the Cross Country rail franchise. In March 2001 London Pride Ltd was acquired and merged with The Original London Sightseeing Tour, creating the largest single operation of its kind anywhere in the world. In August 2010 The Original Tours parent company, Arriva plc, officially became a part of DB UK Holding Limited (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn AG) for  £1.5bn. The Deutsche Bahn group has 295,000 employees in 130 countries. Today, over 60 years later, trading simply as The Original Tour, this multi-award winning company continues to provide visitors to London with a relaxed and enjoyable view of the capitals famous landmarks from open-topped buses operating throughout the year. Source: http://www.theoriginaltour.com/info/about.htm http://www.isecard.com/images/featured/original_london_tour_logo.gif FACILITIES PROVIDED BY BOTH THE COMPANIES BIG BUS TOUR: The Big Bus tour provides open-top sightseeing tours of London. The company has a fleet of 90 buses and tours run every 5-15 minutes, enabling visitors to hop on and off at over 70 stops. The carefully devised tour provides an overview of the history and culture of London, delivered by either a London guide in English or a recorded commentary. The digitally recorded commentary allows you to listen to facts and stories in any of 8 languages. Head phones are provided enabling you to listen in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese Russian. As with all Big Bus Tours, you can stay onboard for the full tour or make use of the hop-on hop-off facility, a great benefit of the London bus tour that enables you to stop and explore the sights at your leisure. Take advantage and visit the top London attractions at your own pace. The Red Tour The classic open top sightseeing tour of London. The interesting and informative commentary provided by the professional guides is just one reason why the Big Bus Red Tour is the best thing to do when visiting London. All Big Bus Red Tours are led by our experienced guides London enthusiasts who will talk you through the history of the city and give you a personal and entertaining commentary on London and its tourist attractions. The route has been carefully devised to enable you to see Londons most famous sights. Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, St. Pauls Cathedral and The Tower of London are just some of the fabulous attractions. Stay on board for the full circuit or make use of the hop-on hop-off facility, a great benefit of the London Bus Tour that enables you to stop and explore the sights at your leisure. Take advantage and visit the top London attractions at your own pace. Discover the wondrous history of London as you learn and laugh with live commentary provided by our professional guides. The tour takes in all the key sights of Central London with great views and interesting facts at every turn. Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, St. Pauls Cathedral and The Tower of London are just some of the fabulous attractions on the red tour. The Blue Tour The most extensive sightseeing route through London takes you to all the top attractions and features an informative recorded commentary in 8 languages on all buses. The bus tour takes in all of Central London as well as Kensington and Hyde Park On Board the Blue Tour you will also be able to discover the shopping havens of Harrods, Harvey Nichols and Kensington High Street, take in the elegant Kensington Palace and the fashionable Notting Hill. In addition to the many sightseeing attractions of Central London, the Blue Tour travels West to the Victoria Albert, Science and Natural History Museums all free to enter, plus the world famous Madame Tussauds. The Green Link The Green Link is an interchange between the red and blue Big Bus tours. It allows you to visit London attractions that may not be covered by either of the other tours. It connects the popular hotel of Russell Square and Trafalgar Square, where you may interchange with the Red and Blue Tours. The Green Link also provides the opportunity to visit both the Dickens and British Museums. It takes just ten minutes to travel between the three stops on one of our open top tour busses. The journey is without a tour guide commentary and departures are every 30 minutes. River Thames Pass Enjoy a leisurely cruise on the River Thames with entertaining commentary and superb views of Londons riverside. Take a short trip through central London or travel to Greenwich and visit the National Maritime Museum and the Greenwich Royal Observatory. Three Walking tours Join an entertaining walking tour lead by one of our experienced guides. There are 3 to choose from, enabling you to discover more of London. Led by a friendly Big Bus Guide, these relaxed walking tours reveal the heart and soul of this great city. With your Big Bus ticket you may take as many guided walks as you like. The guided London walks last approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to 2 hours and leave from the Big Bus Trafalgar Square stops 10 and 37 (outside the Sainsbury wing of the National Gallery). Royal London Walking Tour Beatles Walking Tour of London Ghosts London Walking Tour Big Bus Bonus Card The Bonus card provides great discounts and added value offers in some of Londons most popular restaurants, shops and attractions. The Bonus Card can be used for a week after your Big Bus Sightseeing Tour and can be used repeatedly. Highlights -The houses of Parliament St Pauls Cathedral The Tower of London The London Eye Westminster Abbey Tower Bridge Buckingham Palace Includes Hop on Hop Off sightseeing Tour 2 Routes with the option of a personal audio commentary or a live guided tour 3 Walking Tours, River Cruise and Big Bus Bonus Card (Discount card) Unlimited use of all components throughout ticket validity Things that are excluded from the tour are: Meals and drinks Personal expenses Tips and gratuities Optional activity costs THE ORIGINAL TOURS: Customize your own tour by hopping on and off the bus at any stop, as many times as you like. Theres a choice of sightseeing routes, including the Yellow Route which features live onboard commentary. If youre traveling with the family, take the Red Route relax while your children are entertained and informed by the highly acclaimed Kids Club commentary and their free London activity packs. Each route makes frequent stops simply hop off where you want to, and return to the same stop to continue your tour. Highlights: Madame Tussauds Piccadilly Circus Leicester Square Trafalgar Square Downing Street Big Ben and Parliament London Eye Covent Garden St. Pauls Cathedral Tower Bridge Tower of London Shakespeares Globe Westminster Abbey Buckingham Palace The City Sightseeing Tour (Red Route) Madame Tussauds and the London Planetarium, Regents Park, Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly Circus/Eros Statue, Leicester Square, The National Gallery, Nelsons Column and Trafalgar Square, Horse Guards Parade, Downing Street, Big Ben and Parliament, Lambeth Palace, Imperial War Museum, The London Aquarium, London Eye, South Bank Arts Center and BFI Imax Cinema, Covent Garden, Fleet Street, St. Pauls Cathedral, Monument, London Bridge, London Dungeon, Tower Bridge, The Tower of London, Shakespeares Globe, Tate Gallery Bankside, Millennium Footbridge, Catamaran Cruisers, Sherlock Holmes Pub, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, Hyde Park, Speakers Corner. The Original Tour (Yellow Route) English-speaking fully qualified live guides. The National Gallery, Nelsons Column and Trafalgar Square, Horse Guards Parade, Downing Street, Big Ben and Parliament, Lambeth Palace, Imperial War Museum, The London Aquarium, London Eye, South Bank Arts Center and BFI Imax Cinema, Covent Garden, Fleet Street, St Pauls Cathedral, Monument, London Bridge, London Dungeon, Tower Bridge, The Tower of London, Shakespeares Globe, Tate Gallery Bankside, Millennium Footbridge, Catamaran Cruisers, Sherlock Holmes Pub, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace and the Changing of the Guard, Hyde Park, Speakers Corner, Ritz Hotel, Royal Academy of Arts, Fortnum and Mason, Piccadilly Circus/Eros Statue, Leicester Square. The Museum Link (Blue Route) Main attractions: Kensington Palace, Baden-Powell House, Natural History Museum, Science Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum, Brompton Oratory, Harrods, Knightsbridge, Harvey Nichols, Hyde Park, Ritz Hotel, Piccadilly Circus, Shaftesbury Avenue, British Museum, Russell Square, Wellington Museum, Royal Albert Hall, Albert Memorial, Kensington High Street and the Princess Diana Memorial Fountain. Capital Connector (Purple Route) Holland Park, Notting Hill, Bayswater, Kensington Gardens, Pet Cemetery, Paddington Station, Madame Tussauds. St Pancras Station Connector (Black Route) St Pancras Kings Cross Station Marble Arch Paddington Station Marylebone Station Euston Station. The bus leaves St Pancras International at 10.05, 11.05 and 12.05pm; and departs from Marble Arch at 3.50pm, 4.50pm and 5.50pm. Speak to our staff on the day for the latest timetable information. Central London (Green Route) Leicester Square London Eye Westminster Piccadilly Circus Leicester Square This circular service provides a handy link in central London across the Thames. It operates daily between 09.15 and 15.45. Kids Club The Original Tour is the only tour operator to offer commentaries specially designed for children. History made fun for kids, by kids plus the voice of the ghost of London! Every child also gets a passport to London and a fantastic free fun pack with activity/quiz book. Look out for the great Kids Club competition in the back of the book where you could win a souvenir of London. The Kids Club Channel is available on the red and blue route. Members of the Kids club will receive their own free activity pack and a Passport to London. Dont forget to get your passport officially stamped before you board the bus! Thames River Cruise Enjoy this hop-on-hop-off cruise down the River Thames with professional commentary. Hop-on-hop-off cruises are available from Westminster, Waterloo, Tower and Greenwich Piers. A great way to explore Londons riverside attractions in greater detail and its completely free. FREE Walking Tours On non-guard change days walks go to Buckingham Palace and to St Jamess Palace where you can take photos of sentry boxes. The guard change does not take place if it is raining. All tours take approximately 90 minutes. Please note that the Jack the Ripper walk will finish at Aldgate East tube station and not at one of our bus stops. 1. The Changing of the Guard Walk 2. Rock n Roll Walking Tour 3. The Jack the Ripper Walk SOURCE: http://www.viator.com/tours/London/The-Original-London-Sightseeing-Tour-Hop-on-Hop-off/d737-3302OT?pref=02aid=g305 Comparison between the big bus tour and the original tours Original tour and The Big Bus are the established operators and are arguably the mirror images of each other in terms of the product that they offer to their customers. PRICE COMPARISON At large both the companies go head to head on the price department. But if one has to compare which company has a more cheaper ticket its the original tours with just a fraction. Big Bus has a 24 and 48 hour tickets that they offer but this is not the case with the original tours, they just offer a 24 hour ticket. COMPARISON OF THE BUSES In the last couple of years both the companies have upgraded their buses. All the buses are double deck, open top vehicles. The difference in both the companys buses is how open top they are, some of the top rows in the front are covered. ENGLISH GUIDES AUDIO GUIDES If you are fluent in English it is preferred that you take the guided bus tour which is provided by both the companies. Of the audio guides all have English, French, Spanish, German and Italian. Big Bus doesnt have Japanese, the other two do. Big Bus OLT have Russian. OLT have a Kids Channel. Big Bus has Portuge and Mandarin. Source: http://www.londontoolkit.com/blog/tours/comparing-londons-hop-on-hop-off-sightseeing-buses/ http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQG6Om3ceMVQp8TJ57fRpl6-qUNxCeNe9XP6WMlpBvZMdFPIE_jDw COMPARISON OF THE FACILITIES PROVIDED The original tour provides KIDS CLUB facility which makes it more fun for the kids, the same is not provided by the BIG BUS TOURS. Bonus card, one of the main facility provided by the big bus tour. In this the customers can avail great discounts and value offers in some of Londons most popular restaurants, shops and attractions. The Bonus Card can be used for a week after your Big Bus Sightseeing Tour and can be used repeatedly. This in NOT provided by the ORGINAL TOURS. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS ON THE BASES OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE Q1.Which bus tour did you opt for? According to the data collected 70% of the respondents opted for the Big Bus tour where as only 30% of the people opted for the original tour. Were you given ample time given to you for sightseeing? According to the data collected people who opted for the Big Bus tour said that they were given time to see all the sights but some of the people were not satisfied with the time provided by the tour companies but this is based on their personal requirements. Was there any entertainment for your children during the tour? The original tour is the only bus tour company that provides entertainment for the kids. Families who opted for the big bus tour were really happy with all the facilities and the value added services provided by the company the only thing that they were not content with was that their kids were not given any special treatment. Whereas the families who opted for the original tour were really happy with the services specially with the kids club facility for their children, this made their tour more enjoyable. Was the guide able to answer your questions? The guides of both the tour companies were well informed and were able to tackle all the questions very easily. Did the tour match upto your expectation? Big bus tour was able to match upto the customers expectations as all the things that the company mentioned were provided to them. The most important thing that they were excited about was using their BONUS CARD facility. The original tour was also able to meet the expectation and the people with kids were the ones who were really happy and satisfied as their kids were able to enjoy the tour because of the KIDS CLUB facility provided by the original tour company. Would you recommend this tour to your friends? Customers, whether they opted for big bus or the original tours , they were certain that they will recommend the tour service to all their friends as they were extremely happy with the services provded to them. RECOMMENDATIONS On the basis of the data collected and the survey conducted I have reached the following conclusion: According to the information and my personal experience BIG BUS TOUR is the best and also most of the respondents that were interviewed were the ones who had gone for the same. Personally I would recommend both the companies to install toilets in the buses as it would make the trip more convenient for the customers. According to the suggestions given by the respondents , buses should install some moving platform with the help of which people with a wheel chair can make use of the open top facility provided , otherwise they have to sit at the lower level Original Tours should start a facility similar to the BONUS CARD which is provided by the Big Bus Tour , as it is one of the major differentiating point between them. If the Big Bus tour wants to attract couples with kids, they should start a KIDS CLUB facility or something on the same lines as it would increase their customer base, even though it is still very high. CONCLUSION With the help of the data collected through the questionnaire and the information gathered from the internet I can easily say that big bus tour, with all the hype around it and being started recently ie in May 2011 takes the lead in the hop-on hop-off bus tour providing companies. Original tour company, even though started about 5 decades back, has lost to the new kid on the block. In order for the original tour company to gain more market share and once again be on the top it has to start some aggressive marketing strategies, give more discounts, provide 48 hour tickets as done by its competitors. Big bus tour company, in order to maintain its lead in the market, should introduce some kids entertainment or start a tour specially for the younger generation which would attract more families, as the main motive of the family is that their kids should have a great time and at the end increase their knowledge about the city.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Graduation Speech -- Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

I realize that, during these short minutes I have to address my fellow classmates, all I truly have to offer you are my own thoughts and a little bit of philosophy that I have picked up during my three years here at West High School. Throughout our high school careers, we have been presented with clichà ©s and catch-phrases that are meant to epitomize our entire school career into three or four words: Class of 2000, Bridge to the Millennium, and The Future is Now. As true as all of those phrases may be, I do not believe that any of them can define our entire education. The common tie between all of those themes is this: They all focus on what is to come. They tell us of how we should be years from now, as opposed to acknowledging how we are at this moment. What I want to focus on now i...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Clashes of Race Essay

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore racism and discrimination within America. It was also a goal to show the relationships between racial clashes throughout history, and what the purpose behind the clashes was. By showing these clashes society gets a better understand of what triggers these action within society. Running Header: CLASHES OF RACE: UNDERSTANDING THE PURPOSE In the rather complex world in which society dwells on, society lacks appreciation for the simplicity of the universe. one act or idea can spawn certain events that affect the course of history. To understand history, it is essential for society to look at the causes behind the significance of an event. racial discrimination has spawned social clashes between ethnicities for generations, and it continues to do so. to understand the significance of these events, it is important to analyze the source of these racial clashes throughout history. analyzing the sources of these events provides, if any, patterns of human nature in response to mistreatment due to racial profiling. it is also essential to analyze the basic principles of discrimination within the twenty-first century and what society faces in present day. Before analyzing racial discrimination in the twenty-first century, the importance of understanding the different types of racism is needed. There are two types of discrimination that society faces present day, direct discrimination and indirect discrimination. direct discrimination by definition, is when an individual or group is singled out directly by society or an individual based on there race. indirect discrimination is when an individual is singled out surreptitiously by an individual or group. this is more prevalent within present day culture, compared to direct discrimination. The reason being that racism in the twenty-first century is less acceptable among society. the result of racism is that it is less acceptable within modern day society is racism taking on a more enigmatic face. Running Header: CLASHES OF RACE: UNDERSTANDING THE PURPOSE social clashes that resulted from direct discrimination have been apart of america for decades. prime examples of direct discrimination are famously the wars and massacres enacted on early native americans. The reasons for these attacks on native americans were due to new settlers in america wanting to acquire resources from the natives themselves. The colonist’s believed that the natives way of life was inferior to their own, due to the savageness of their own human nature. This is a prime example of micro-aggression in early american culture. Such events such as the â€Å"trail of tears† and many other attacks on the native american’s way of life was justified due to the idea of manifest destiny, which is a belief that the territory was a divine gift to the american colonist. This resulted in constant conflict between american society and native americans in the twenty-first century. it is important to understand how micro-aggression works and operates in the twenty-first century. With modern society changing into a more diversified culture in the United States, it is important to understand how indirect discrimination works in modern society. Society by nature tends to group themselves within certain micro-cultures, it is important to understand this important dynamic due to its purpose within society. this dynamic by nature forces ethnicities to side with a certain set of social norms and values. (West,2004) examples of how this affects modern day society would best be described by conflict with interracial marriages and racial generalization. Ethnic grouping has been apart of america since the beginning of american society. the colonist settled in america based on their religions and values, in which the colonist Running Header: CLASHES OF RACE: UNDERSTANDING THE PURPOSE had previously in britain. more modern examples of ethnic grouping would be groups, such as the black panther party, naacp are examples of more modern cases of ethnic grouping. (Jablonski,2012) the common feature of today’s society, also well known as mass media, has a huge impact on racial conflictions with the populace of today’s society. One psychological principle says that if an image or idea is shown repetitively that the image or idea will leave an imprint on the mind, later on making the mind recognize the image or ideology as† normalcy†. (Yosso,2002) the mainstream media controls the public agenda, as well as the emotions reflected within society. the mass media needs to recognize the effect in which it has on society, the purpose of the media should be to promote the truth of a matter accurately. This would help balance out racial out lashes between ethnic neighborhood, as well as riots and other ethnic protest. (Vann,2006) in recent times of society, racism in north america has went through a major transformation, especially after the post-civil rights era where the democrats believed in equality for all types of ethnicities that specifically did not get along throughout the history of racism in society(Wamsted,D,2012). This shows the progression of diversity within America. however, even with change in equality the south still shows a higher percentage of direct discrimination as well as indirect discrimination in modern day society than the north. Some examples of the result of discrimination can best be depicted is social out lashes of an ethnic communities. this can be shown through protest, as well as more Running Header: CLASHES OF RACE: UNDERSTANDING THE PURPOSE serious demonstrations such as riots. the causes of these demonstrations can be a number of reasons, but one pattern that is shown throughout history is that most social out lashes resulted due to mistreatment among their race. an example of this would be the los angeles riots of 1992. The riots resulted from six officers found not guilty that were accused of beating a black male, rodney king. the riots lasted for six days, and resulted in thousands of injuries and fifty-three deaths. (Watts,2011) however, not every protest result in death and injury. through the civil rights era many protesters believed in the nonviolent approach of martin luther king jr. most protesters believed in sit-ins, boycotts, and other forms of nonviolent forms of protest. however, the effects of racism and discrimination has not stopped america from diversifying, but rather fueled individualism among minorities within america. A study shows that more minorities are striving for higher education within america. derek bok reported in 2000 in his book The Shape of the River that eighty-six percent of black students who enrolled in twenty-eight selective universities across the nation were apart of the middle-class or upper-middle class. This shows not only an increase in african american on college campus, but also the percentage of success among blacks with a stable financial backing. This trend is important to understand due to the progression of diversity within america. It is prevalent that not only income have increased among african americans, but also the number of blacks going to college compared to college statistics of the 1990s and 1980s. (Harring-Smith,2012) to understand the importance of an action, is in essence the greatest ideology or knowledge to grasp. for every action within society has an effect on history. The Running Header: CLASHES OF RACE: UNDERSTANDING THE PURPOSE importance of diversity within society continues to show progression. however, racism will always have its place within society. Society has to continue to evolve as well as continue to educate the youth in society to limit the grasp that racism has on america, whether the discrimination is indirect or direct. â€Å"we’ve got to face the fact that some people say you fight fire best with fire, but we say you put fire out best with water. we say you don’t fight racism with racism. we’re gonna fight racism with solidarity. †-Fred Hampton Running Header: CLASHES OF RACE: UNDERSTANDING THE PURPOSE References: Haring-Smith, T. (2012). Broadening Our Definition of Diversity. Liberal Education, 98(2), 6. Jablonski, N. (2012). The struggle to overcome racism. New Scientist, 215(2880), 26. Vann, A. (2006, June 29). Sometimes the allegation of â€Å"reverse racism† is camouflage for maintaining the â€Å"status quo†. New York Amsterdam News. p. 13. Wamsted, D. J. (2012). Opening Doors for Diversity. Electric Perspectives, 37(3), 26. Watts. (2011). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. West, E. (2004). Expanding the Racial Frontier. Historian, 66(3), 552. doi:10. 1111/j. 1540-6563. 2004. 00088. x Yosso, T. J. (2002). Critical Race Media Literacy: Challenging Deficit Discourse about Chicanas/os. Journal Of Popular Film & Television, 30(1), 52.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Valentines Day Party Ideas

Valentine Dance Party Ideas for Teens Ads by Google korean used cars for sale korean bus, truck, new & used cars korean used car exporter   www. roadmatecar. com The DDOS Specialist Identify and block DDOS attacks automatically and in real time. www. riorey. com Looking for Angelica? Find Family & Friends on Facebook. Create a Free Profile – It's Easy! Facebook. com/Angelica Ideas for a great Valentine's Day dance or party for teenagers, including themes, party favors, Valentine decor, food, & activities for your special event.By Janienne Jennrich on Jan 20, 2011 Share Login to post a comment Looking for ideas for a a teen or high school Valentine's Day dance or party? Valentine's Day is February 14. What a terrific time for a special indoor event to celebrate friendship and love! Whether you are interested in planning a large semi-formal or formal dance or a more intimate teen event, there are many ways to create a unique atmosphere with Valentine's Day theme suggestions al ong with decorating, food, and activity ideas. Should the Teen Event Have a Theme?A large event will often have a theme to pull together all the decorating, activities and so on. Having an overall color scheme and style, at least, can help bring plans into focus. For smaller casual parties at home, simply announcing the event date and providing good food and music may be plenty. The most obvious and simple Valentine decor theme is, of course, hearts. A heart-filled party or dance room is easy to create on the cheap, using paper or foam board decorations (and maybe lots of red glitter) and some red, pink and white balloons.Valentine party goods are readily available at party shops, online, and even at dollar stores. Hearts are sweet and simple, but you may be looking for something more unique. A Royalty Themed Valentine Event for Teenagers Prince William and his bride were married in a royal wedding in 2011. For an over the top and epic party, pull out all the stops and make attendee s feel like royalty! Invite princes and princesses to wear their finest to a Royal Valentine Ball. A little corny? Maybe. But if you can't have some fairy tale fun around Valentine's Day, when can you?Invitations rolled up like royal scrolls and tied with ribbon are charming for hand-delivering to friends. For a large school or community event, a scroll design can be included as a border on printed fliers or posters. Add calligraphy or use a fancy computer font to play up the image of a royal event. Consider including: * A long red carpet leading into the ball room (check party rental suppliers) * Ballot boxes for voting for â€Å"Sweetest Princess,† â€Å"Most Dashing Prince,† â€Å"Most Fairytale-Like,† and â€Å"Most Romantic Couple. Award winners with party crowns. * A rose-covered arch or another pretty background for photo opportunities * Lots of sparkle in decorations, party favors, and lighting * Fun and fancy gold-trimmed signs on restroom doors, such as â€Å"Princess's Throne Room† and â€Å"Prince's Throne Room† * A real horse and carriage (preferably white) to take couples on romantic rides around the party area * Make a simple heart-shaped ice sculpture using a ice mold (sold on Amazon or in party supply stores).Display the ice sculpture among flowers as a main centerpiece. Depending on the location, budget and number of teenagers attending the royal event, food and drinks can be simple or extravagant. Ice water and heart-shaped cookies are very nice for a lower-budget event. If money is less of an issue, fill dessert tables with lovely and romantic treats like pretty chocolates and mini Valentine cupcakes. To add a bit of elegance and romance, line food platters with roses and/or add single roses in slim glass vases to the serving table.Offer sparkling cider or an elegant party punch to drink. If you get stuck for idea, watch the ballroom scene of the movie Cinderella (and maybe you'll end up having a Cinderel la themed party! ) Hugs and Kisses Theme – XOXO Valentine Party for Teens XOXO means hugs and kisses and works as an elegant or casual Valentine's dance theme. Hugs and kisses can be those of friendship, so this party theme need not be too mushy (unless mushy is what you want! ). Consider including: A photo spot with props like big huggable teddy bears, giant lips, big hearts and X's and O's * X and O shaped confetti sprinkled on tables * Small tic-tac-toe games printed on red paper (Get it? Tic- tac-toe = X and O? ) * Big X and O shapes, drawn with washable sidewalk chalk, on a concrete walkway, porch, or curb area to welcome guests * Hershey's chocolate Kisses and Hugs candies (with a sign that says â€Å"Get your Hugs and Kisses Here! â€Å") X and O letter shapes are easy to make, so there's no need to be especially artistic to make great decorations.Scrapbook and craft stores may carry large foam, wood, or cardboard shapes to use in party decor. Party colors for this t heme could be pink and white, red and white, black and white, black and silver or a combo of any other of these or other colors. Or who says you can't have a neon green and purple Valentine dance? Not me! Take this theme and run with the ideas for an awesome event all your own! More Fun Valentine Dance or Party Activities These ideas can be used at any Valentines dance, whether or not there is a theme. Flood the dance floor with balloons. With lots of balloons scattered all over the floor, spontaneous bopping and fun balloon fights will happen. * Set up a table where guests fill out kids valentines & â€Å"address† tiny envelopes. Include lots of cheap valentine cards with popular characters like Scooby-Doo, Hello Kitty and Snoopy. Make sure there are some fun stickers (which often come with valentines) and plenty of pens. Teens can write on the cards and give them to each other at the event.Listen for the laughs as stickers get stuck to guests cheeks, noses and clothes. * Fo r other teen Valentines ideas, see Valentine Craft Making Party or  Valentine Tea Party. Find even more Valentine ideas at We Love Valentines. Valentine's Day is Feb. 14, so mark your calendar and get planning! Resources Read more at Suite101:  Valentine Dance Party Ideas for Teens | Suite101  http://suite101. com/article/valentine-dance-party-ideas-for-teens-a335328#ixzz2K6lp3I00   Follow us:  @suite101 on Twitter  |  Suite101 on Facebook

Japan or China the Most Important Strategic Relationship for Australia Among the Major Asian Powers?

Is Japan or China the most important strategic relationship for Australia among the major Asian powers? By Mej Amran B Mohamad RMAF Malaysian Armed Forces Defence College Haigate Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. 12 Nov 2009 Author can be contacted at : [email  protected] com. au ——————————————————————————————————————— Introduction Australia’s credentials and place in today international system is quite significant which influence greatly her ability to position and formulating herself strategically in the global scenario especially in the Asia Pacific region. As a nation with global interests, Australia deals with many countries in many regions and one of them is in Asian region. Australia undoubtedly and substantially engages hers interests in a wide range of aspects within the framework of the countries within this Asian region. Among the countries which are influential in shaping Australia’s strategic and defense policy within the Asia Pacific ring are China, Japan and South Korea, North Korea and Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) block countries. On the other hand significant Australian interests are also engaged in Australia’s relationships with the other states such as the European Union and its member states, and in the South Pacific, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. However the emerging of China and the influence of Japanese among the major power and largest economies of the Asia-Pacific region has considerably alter the region stability lately. Many new factors and balancing pointers have emerged and its impacts cannot be ignored in shaping Australia strategic relationship and its development of defense policy. Consequently new form of challenges have emerged such as North Korea nuclear proliferation issues and overlapping claimed territory in the South China Sea to mention a few. As such advertently Australia needs to revisit and review back its strategic relationship between the so called major powers in Asia region like China and Japan in order to ensure its effective implementation of strategic environment. Australia essentially need to ensure its security, trading, investment, economic, social partners towards the region continue to uphold and be beneficial to Australia in order to continue sustain and maintain its competitive advantage. Aim The aim of this paper is to examine and to look into some critical aspects of Australia strategic and defense planning policy framework imperatives in order to decide whether China or Japan is the most important strategic relationship for Australia among the major Asian powers. Australia International Relations In its international relations arena, Australia utilizes its assets such as economic, strategic and cultural to uphold its international reputation as a responsible, constructive and practical country. It can be seen that the values which Australia brings to its international relations presently are the values of a liberal democracy greatly influence by her American ally. Australia global politics undoubtedly have been shaped by national experience and given vigour through cultural diversity of the country itself. Some of the important imperatives include the rule of law, the accountability of the government to an elected parliament, freedom of the press and a commitment to a ‘fair go’. Australia ranks eleventh in the world in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. For comparison, Australia's main export destinations[1], 2008 to Japan was 22. 7% 1 and China 15. 6% respectively. Australia's main import sources, 2008 China 14. 6% and from Japan 9%. Australia’s defense capability is seem to be very significant in regional terms. Australia also has a broadly based alliance relationship with the United States, whose strategic engagement and commitment underwrite the stability of East Asia as a whole. Australia Strategic Environment According Senator the Hon Robert Hill Minister for Defense[2] in 2005, he stressed out that providing the capability to defend Australia and Australian interests remains the first responsibility of ruling government. Now lets us look into Australia strategic environment before discussing in depth by delineates the impact of globalization in relation to its strategic perspective. The Impact of Globalisation The world is undeniably experiencing profound and rapid change. While the international world system is dynamic, globalization is accelerating the movement of ideas and technologies and advertently exposing Australia to a new strategic environment framework such as increased the interdependency between countries and made borders more porous, increased of the potency of the terrorist threat, increase the complexity of the potential danger of WMD proliferation[3]. Globalisation has accelerated the trends which have a significant impact on security policy matters, defense capability and decision-making due to increased unpredictability and uncertainty; the technology revolution has led to a diffusion of technology at a faster tempo, particularly in the areas of information and communications; existing of asymmetric threats such as terrorism or WMD have reduced the value of defenses built around geographic advantage; non-state players quite often in some circumstances, constitute a strategic threat such as new form of transnational terrorist organisations, with no state allegiance and new types of weapons and tactics ; and borders as security barriers are now much less effective to mention a few[4]. The interconnectedness of globalisation profoundly have widen and intensify their impacts. Defense Policy In general, Australia’s defense policy response to this environment comprises of two major elements[5]. The first is to shape and build a defense capability that is versatile and adaptable. Australia has and will continue to build a force that is joint, balanced, networked and deployable. Such a force provides options for a credible response wherever Australia’s security interests are engaged. Secondly is to build strong security relationships both globally and regionally. It must be able to lead and have the capacity to contribute to coalitions in region of interest such as the Asia region as per say. Australia’s Security Interests Asia Pacific global issues have significant security implications for Australia. Generally the risk of global conflict diminished considerably with the end of the Cold War, however other potential threats remain. Conflicts in Europe, the Middle East and South Asia regions have the potential to disrupt global security. To address this Australia need to form a strategic partnership with many countries in her global political engagements and of course within Asia Pacific Ring, Japan and China are the most important priority among the Asia regional major powers. Australia’s national security and its economic interests are inextricably linked to the security and stability of the Asia Pacific region. It can be seen that the key components of Australia’s security strategy are maintaining a strong national defense capability, the security alliance with the United States, developing bilateral defense and security relationships with the countries throughout the Asia Pacific, and strengthening multilateral security links in the region, especially with the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). As such by continuously fostering strategic relationship with China and Japan are paramount. Regular bilateral security dialogues with countries in the Asia Pacific, and with key partners beyond the region, provide an opportunity to share views on a wide range of regional and global security issues, promote transparency and reinforce Australia’s commitment to working cooperatively with regional countries on security issues. Australia has increased the number of countries with which it has such dialogues, as part of its long-term strategy of promoting shared security perceptions in the Asia Pa cific region. The ARF for example is an important means of encouraging a sense of strategic community in the region. It complements the central role of bilateral links in dealing with global and regional security issues, and has an important role in encouraging regional support for international regimes against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their missile delivery systems. One of the features of the ARF in 2000 was the participation for the first time of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). On the other hand Australia sees Japan as a strong proponent and strongly supports ASEAN countries economic growth by providing financial aids and assistance in terms of Official Development Aids (ODA) for instance. Subsequently, Australia on the other hand has been very much part of the process of seeking to engage the DPRK more constructively with the regional and international community, including through an exchange of high-level visits. Australia announced the re-establishment of diplomatic relations with the DPRK in May 2000. Australia has made a major contribution to the significant progress in establishing international regimes to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and of missiles. Australia’s future efforts will be concentrated on ensuring that these regimes are implemented and remain effective and, where necessary, are strengthened. Australia is a strong proponent of encouraging adherence to the international regime banning the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel landmines. Australia is committed and relentlessly to adopt practical measures such as landmine clearance, victim assistance and mine clearance technology programs. So after looking inside the Australia needs, now lets us see what has China and Japan share in common and in what ways Australia can benefit more and have the edge by associating herself with the two countries strategically from my perspectives. One thing for sure is that Australia strategic relationships in the Asian region are becoming more complex and continue to evolve. China China’s increasing political and strategic engagement with the Asia-Pacific region with its emerging economic profoundly has many significant impacts on the global economy as well as within the Asia region. Its increasing demand for resources is driving China expansion of economic activity development in the Asia-Pacific region and also emerging as a significant technological centre for region. Hence, China’s importance to Australia grows along with this development accordingly and it cannot be totally ignored. Undoubtedly Australia sees China’s relations with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region are critically important to the maintenance of regional peace, security and stability. According to Jieh-Yung Lo, (2007)[6], Australia’s strategic responses would include China’s relationship with East Asia, placing strong emphasis on the Korean Peninsula. In particular, China’s relations with Japan and the United States play another vital role in shaping the security context for the entire region. It is in Australia’s national interest actively to encourage and support Chinese participation in dialogue and cooperation on regional security issues. As for example during 2000-01 the exchange of high-level visits started by the visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin to Australia in late 1999 continued, with six Australian ministers and the Deputy Prime Minister visiting China. The investment and trade relationship between Australia and China is very encouraging and expanding. China today is Australia’s third largest merchandise trade partner. New opportunities for Australia are wide open when China’s was accepted entry into the WTO, both in terms of greater market access for Australian goods and services. Thus by encouraging China to integrate further into the global economy and abide by international trade rules, the role China played in advocating regional stability become more pronounce.. Mutual economic and trade interests are increasingly underpinned by the strengthening of broader bilateral ties including cultural, educational, scientific and people-to-people links. With different cultures and traditions, Australia and China do not always share the same view, but regular dialogue and government-to-government exchanges have been established on a range of issues – from human rights to security issues – in a bid to discuss differences of opinion. The one-China policy will continue to be a fundamental element of the bilateral relationship within which Australia pursues important economic and trade interests with Taiwan. The size, competitiveness and pace of growth of the Chinese economy will continue to be a dynamic influence on other Asia-Pacific economies. Hence its strategic influence will continue to grow and need to be carefully weighted by Australia in planning her defense policy in the region. Japan On the other hand Japan arms of influence cannot be simply being ignored. It must not be forgotten and by reminiscing on the past history of the might of Japanese expansion and World War II (WW II) and the remarkable effort of its quick phase to recover and become a developed country later to become the giant world economy just next to United States need not to be considered lightly. As such undoubtedly Japan occupies a vital strategic position in North-East Asia and continues to play a primary economic and political role in Asia Pacific immediate region. So, realizing this, Australia relentlessly works hard to encourage and continue endlessly for close dialogue with Japan on a wide range of political, economic, and strategic issues and the development, to the extent possible, of policies which are mutually reinforcing. Japan continues to be Australia’s major trading partner, accounting for some 16% by value of our total trade (exports plus imports) in 2000. It is a significant investor in Australia and our largest source of in-bound tourism. The Japanese Government is taking more active role in regional and global security. It remains active in the war on terrorism. Japan increased its commitment to other part of the world such as Iraq, both financially and through the deployment of elements of the Japanese Self-Defense Force in non-combat roles. The Japanese Self-Defense contributions to peacekeeping effort are quite positive. On the other hand the strategic relationship with the United States continues to develop through increased interoperability, harmonization of Japanese and US capabilities and cooperation in missile defense. Australia’s partnership with Japan reflects the broad alignment of Australian and Japanese strategic, political and economic interests in the Asia-Pacific region. Like Australia, Japan supports the long-term strategic engagement of the United States in the Asia-Pacific region and recognizes the fundamental contribution that it makes to regional stability. Japan also shares our interest in advancing the APEC forum as the primary vehicle for economic cooperation in the Asia Pacific region. The Australia-Japan Conference for the 21st Century was held in Sydney on 29 and 30 April 2001 to chart new directions – strategic, economic, cultural, educational and scientific – for the relationship. The Conference Declaration, ‘The Sydney Declaration for Australia-Japan Creative Partnership’, set out a comprehensive action agenda: to strengthen economic relations, including through a trade and investment facilitation agreement; to expand dialogue and cooperation on security; and to increase people-to-people links. The Prime Minister’s visit to Japan in August 2001 built further on these links. The Factors Shaping Its Development and the Challenges to Be Met To Ensure Its Effective Implementation. In today dynamic environment more quite often the failure of existing international institutions to provide confidence in collective security arrangements has prompted an increasing resort to coalitions-of-the-willing to resolve issues of common concern. As such anticipating and meeting hallenges to Australia’s security remains a demanding task. Some of the crucial factors shaping Australia defense planning in general include the war on terrorism, proliferatio n of nuclear weapons and weapon of mass destruction The war on terrorism continues unabated on many fronts. Successive terrorist attacks in NewYork, Washington, Jakarta, Bali, Madrid, London and elsewhere since 2001 have demonstrated clearly that no country is immune from experiencing the debacle and horrors of non state actor such international terrorism. The threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction has yet to be defeated as some states still seek to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Longstanding issues, including those relating to the Middle East, North Korea, Iran and Taiwan, remain the subject of international tension. Many countries, including in the Asia-Pacific region, continue to struggle to create the conditions they need for stable economic and political development. Issues of economic downturn, human trafficking, human migration, drugs smuggling, environmental issues, overlapping claimed, boundary disputes are among current issues that need to be emphasize and handle diplomatically and strategically. These imperatives are among many challenges faced by Australia. Analyse the Strengths and Limitations on Current Australian Policy Australia employs its defence capability as the most potent of the range of instruments in order to promote and support its security interests. Among Australia strength include having a formidable Australian Defence Forces (ADF) which is able to meet all these policy and strategic needs. The ADF is capable of operating as a networked, joint force across information, air, land and maritime domains. It also has the capability to operate in environments that are complex and ambiguous, and where adversaries, including non-state adversaries, have increasingly lethal capabilities. Through continuing modernization, it needs to retain capability edge over potential rivals by having the elements of versatility[7]. robustness[8], jointness[9] and integration[10]. At all times it must maintain high levels of preparedness as demonstrated by ADF personnel whom have been deployed in many operations, including those in East Timor, Bougainville, Afghanistan, the Middle East and Iraq, the Solomon Islands, and the Sudan to mention a few. Several of these operations have been concurrent. On the other hand, there have been continuing border security tasks, natural disaster relief operations and contributions to long-running UN peacekeeping or peace-monitoring operations in the Sinai and elsewhere in the Middle East. Other role includes supporting domestic security operations such as those for the Olympic Games and the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Some of the constraints include growing cost pressures on the defense budget. This consequently affects the rising cost of ‘state of the art’ military equipment, particularly capabilities essential for the ADF’s capacity to develop and operate as a superior networked force. The other aspects is the recruitment and retention of an evermore technically capable force amidst of a strong and growing economy, will surely become more challenging Thirdly is to ensure the most efficient use of resources posses a significant challenge to the ADF. Australia Strategic Alliance Priority to Chinese or Japan Australia security accord with Japan has been greeted with much controversy over Australia's actions and intentions of containing China. These two Asian major powers have brought back the shadows of â€Å"Cold War† language of fundamental power relations and strategic competition within the Asia region. However rivalry could be restricted to peaceful economic competition for economic resources. According to Jieh-Yung Lo[11] (2007) China and Japan produce an environment of bi-polar Asia and putting Australia with the dilemma of balancing its national interests in the face of this strategic competition. All this while Japan has become a long time trusted partners in the Asia-Pacific region. Japan and Australia share a common interest in regional stability and prosperity. And today, Australia and Japan enjoy one of the most significant economic and strategic partnerships in Asia. As can be seen in July 2003 besides the latest security accord, Australia and Japan concluded a Trade and Economic Framework to set directions for the future development of the bilateral trade relationship. On the contrary Australia recognizes that both China and Japan are important to its foreign policy and defense policy in the region and shares a growing and thriving relationship with China and on the other side of the coin have a stable relationship with Japan. Australia is very clear where its interests lie and tends to see economics and security as separate issues. It welcomes China's growth, but believes that Japan and the United States should remain influential players in regional affairs. 12] Conclusion From the discussion above it can be seen that it is essential for Australia to form up a formidable defense planning which must provide for both the needs of the present and the possibilities of the future into the uncharted territory. In my opinion thus Australia strategic a lliance with Japan is most crucial and prioritized compare to with China. It is based on many elements of shared values and interests between Japan and Australia. I cogently believed the relationship will still remain the cornerstone of Australia strategic partnership in order to foster and enhance further regional security and stability in the Asian region. Bear in mind that a country’s effectiveness and influence in international affairs is determined by a combination of tangible and intangible factors including its reputation, its geographic size and population, the size and success of its economy, its strategic culture and its defense capability. I can foresee that Australia will continue to work to support the Asia-Pacific region in addressing threats of terrorism, weapons proliferation and the challenge of failing states. In an ever more inter-related world, threats to our neighbours are threats to us among which include the threat of proliferation of WMD within the region and in supporting fragile and vulnerable states. Whether fighting terrorism, piracy, transnational crime, international drug syndicates or people smugglers, effective defense policy remains a key tool of the Australian Government. As such it is importantly and uniquely for Australia to form up a smart partnership and strategic alliance with another countries in this case among one of the major powers in Asia region the most important is Japan if compare to China. In building war fighting capacity to respond to possible future threats, undoubtedly the right defense policy framework will still remains the primary instrument of the Australian Government and will therefore continue to have a central role to play in protecting and assuring Australia’s national goals of a peaceful, stable and increasingly prosperous region. However China as an emerging economic power with it renowned of its military might of course also play a vital role in destabilize the East Asian region and have great influence on the North Koreas and its proliferation nuclear issues cannot be totally ignored. I strongly believe that that a good ongoing relationship with Australia-China is still very useful and Australia need to diligently and willingly maintain a role in influencing China to a certain extent. There is evident in Australia's growing economic and political relationship with China in terms of trade and regional affairs. I also believe that strategic competition between China and Japan will continue to be dominant factors and shape the security and future stability in the region. On present trends, I believe China has reasons to be confidence. Bibliography Books Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: Force 2030. Canberra, ACT : Dept. of Defense (2009) Dibb, Paul. 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RSIS Commentaries, 24 April 09 http://www3. ntu. edu. sg/rsis/publications/Perspective/RSIS0402009. pdf Australia's bilateral relationships can be found at http://www. dfat. gov. au/geo/fs Specific trade and investment information see http://www. dfat. gov. au/ And http://www. tradewatch. dfat. gov. au East Asian Analytical Unit http://www. dfat. gov. u/publications/catalogue/pub_bycountry. html DFAT statistical publications see http://www. dfat. gov. au/publications/index. html Australia's international treaty commitments http://www. austlii. edu. au/au/other/dfat Australia's human rights policy e http://www. dfat. gov. au/hr Australia’s international environmental activities http://www. dfat. gov. au/environment Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), http://www. ausaid. gov. au. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, http://www. aciar. gov. au Australian Safeguards and Non-proliferation Office, http://www. asno. dfat. gov. au Australian Trade Commission (Austrade), http://www. austrade. ov. au Export Finance and Insurance Corporation (EFIC), http://www. efic. gov. au/ ———————– [1] Fact Sheet, Market Information and Research Section, DFAT, http://www. dfat. gov. au/geo/fs (dated 4 Sept 09) [2] Australia’s National Security, A Defence Update 2005, Australia Department Of Defense , pp. v [3] Ibid pp. 5 [4] Ibid pp. 2-4 [5] Ibid pp 12 [6] Jieh-Yung Lo, (2007), Article on China v Japan: implications for Australia? Dated 4 Dec 2007 [7] Versatility represents the capacity to perform a range of different roles, often concurrently. Aust ralia’s National Security, A Defense Update 2005, Australia Department Of Defense pp. 9 [8] Robustness is indicated by depth in resources and personnel and is an essential quality if the ADF is to retain the ability to sustain operations for lengthy periods. Ibid pp. 20 [9] Jointnes refers to responds to the challenge of ensuring that all service elements operate together in ways that make a truly joint force. Ibid pp. 20 [10] Integration represents the ability to network weapons platforms and capabilities to strengthen their effectiveness as part of a whole force. Ibid pp. 20 [11] Jieh-Yung Lo, (2007), Article on China v Japan: implications for Australia? Dated 4 Dec 2007. [12] Jieh-Yung Lo, (2007), Article on China v Japan: implications for Australia? Dated 4 Dec 2007